Current Research | La Brea Tar Pits and Museum

Current Research

The collections at Rancho La Brea are still at the core of late Pleistocene North American research today. Staff, Research Associates, professional paleontologists, and graduate students frequent the collections throughout the year. Today's research ranges from carbon-14 dating projects to asphalt-dwelling microbial ecology to traditional taxonomic and functional studies. Many questions still remain to be answered. The collections are available for any appropriately qualified person interested in doing formal research. All inquiries must be made through the Collections Manager, including requests for loans of specimens. We only loan specimens to institutions.


Available for research through the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. Click here to apply!

Student Opportunity for Field School at Rancho La Brea!

Join us for a 4 weeks through the Institute of Field Research La Brea Tar Pits Program

Student Opportunity to study Mesocarnivores at Rancho La Brea!

A summer research internship for undergraduates and recent graduates from July 8 – August 16. 

Application deadline: April 26, 2019 

The Mesocarnivore Summer Research Program is a six-week paid research internship in summer 2019. The program will train a cohort of four students in biodiversity research under the mentorship of Dr. Mairin Balisi, a National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Research Fellow at La Brea Tar Pits and Museum and the University of California at Merced, to study the paleoecology of “mesocarnivores”, or small- to medium-sized mammalian carnivores, before and after the megafaunal extinctions and climatic transitions at the end of the last Ice Age.

Interested in applying? Read more at:

Download Volume about Rancho La Brea and Beyond!

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staff research

Dr. Emily Lindsey
Assistant Curator & Excavation Site Director, La Brea Tar Pits & Museum

My research integrates information from past and modern ecosystems to understand how Ice Age animals and environments functioned, how climate conditions and human actions intersect to drive extinctions, and to predict future ecological responses in the face of modern global change.  No other paleontological site in the world has as great a potential to answer these questions as the La Brea Tar Pits.  I studied Biology at Brown University (undergraduate) and the University of California – Berkeley (Ph.D.), and did postdoctoral research at U.C. Berkeley and the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural in Uruguay.  I have conducted fieldwork in the United States, Antarctica, Chile, Guyana, and Ecuador, where my ongoing research program focuses on investigating the rich asphaltic fossil localities of the Santa Elena Peninsula and comparing them with our own tar pits here in California.

Dr. Libby Ellwood
Postdoctoral Research Fellow

My ecological research occurs at the intersection of climate change, conservation, and citizen science. I work to understand past systems while conducting contemporary research to see how these systems have changed and how they may continue to change in the future. This research depends on historical or ancient information and citizen scientists are playing an increasing role in making such data available. Recently, I completed a postdoctoral position with iDigBio at Florida State University where I worked to engage the public in digitizing specimens and data contained in natural history collections. In my current Research Fellow position at La Brea Tar Pits & Museum I am part of the "A mouse's eye view of Rancho La Brea" project to reconstruct paleo food webs. Specifically, I'm developing educational resources to involve students in sorting microfossils that will inform us of the small mammals and plants that comprised ecosystems here 50-30,000 years ago.

Dr. Alexis Mychajliw
Postdoctoral Research Fellow

Genomes, bones, and sediments hold clues to how species responded to extinction pressures in the past. I apply a diverse methodological toolkit to understand how faunal communities have changed over the past 20,000 years into today, and place these results in a modern conservation context. I have a BS in Biology and Natural Resources from Cornell University and just received my PhD in Biology from Stanford University, working closely with the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural of the Dominican Republic. At La Brea, I use stable isotopes of Holocene fauna to develop a baseline for understanding the rapidly changing biodiversity of Los Angeles. I am excited to compare the Holocene of California with my ongoing research of Caribbean mammal extinctions - especially all things insectivore!

Dr. Kenneth E. Campbell
Curator Emeritus, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
My current research on the fossil birds of Rancho La Brea includes two major projects. One is the detailed description of the bones of teratorns and the identification of distinguishing characteristics of the two genera and species that occur in the tar pit collections. The second is a complete reevaluation of the nine species of fossil owls in the collections, which is undertaken in collaboration with Dr. Zbigniew Bochenski of Poland. The study of the owls will result in the description of new genera and species. A recently completed study was a revision and re-description of the extinct California Turkey, Meleagris californica, coauthored with Dr. Bochenski. Other families of birds are also being prepared for detailed revisionary studies.

Dr. John M. Harris
Curator Emeritus, La Brea Tar Pits & Museum


nsf-funded projects

A mouse’s eye view of Rancho La Brea: Assessing millennial-scale community dynamics using mammal and vegetation food webs

Dr. Jacquelyn Gill, Assistant Professor, Climate Change Institute & School of Biology & Ecology, U. of Maine-Orono
Dr. Jessica Blois, Assistant Professor, Life and Environmental Sciences, UC Merced
Dr. Justin Yeakel, Assistant Professor, Life and Environmental Sciences, UC Merced

We are working on an NSF-funded project to build multi-trophic food webs for La Brea paleo-ecosystems and reconstruct changes in the composition and structure of the ecological network in California across the late 50,000 years. Using the Project 23 deposits, which span from >50,000 years to ca. 30,000 years ago, we will first reconstruct trophic interactions of the large to small mammals and vegetation from different time slices, allowing us to constrain the range of natural variability among species interactions. We will then examine the stability of food webs to external perturbations, both simulated (e.g., targeted removal of a species vs. climate change that affects all species individualistically) and observed (e.g., by testing model predictions against actual events in the paleorecord, such as the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions). This will give us an idea of how resilient different species were to climate and human impacts and whether properties of the overall interaction networks predict the vulnerability of individual species. This project also involves La Brea curators and staff, and Dr. John Southon at UC Irvine. Stay up-to-date with this project on twitter at #LaBreaWebs and on our blog

Chronology and Ecology of Late Pleistocene Megafauna at Rancho La Brea

Dr. Wendy J. Binder, Professor, Loyola Marymount University, CA
Dr. Julie A. Meachen, Assistant Professor, Des Moines University, IA
Dr. F. Robin O’Keefe, Professor, Marshall University, WV
Dr. Larisa DeSantis, Associate Professor, Vanderbilt University, TN
Dr. Emily Lindsey, Assistant Curator, La Brea Tar Pits Museum, CA
Dr. John Southon, Researcher, Earth System Science, UC Irvine, CA

The La Brea fossils span a critical time in Earth’s history (approximately 50,000 years ago to the present) that includes major events such as the end of the last Ice Age, the arrival of humans in North America, and an extinction that killed two thirds of the large mammals on the continent. This unique deposit allows us to investigate relationships between major environmental changes and evolutionary variation (size, diet, etc.) in large mammals, information that is critical for promoting the survival of wildlife today. There is a distinct lack of radiocarbon dates for fossils in this period, resulting in our inability to correlate biotic change with time. This project will intensively radiocarbon date samples from multiple pits spanning the last 50,000 years to establish the first detailed chronology for the entrapment of four extinct species of large mammals (saber-toothed cats, dire wolves, Antique bison, and the Western horse), and one extant species (the coyote). It will involve the collection and compilation of census data for these species to track changes in total abundance and diversity, as well as data on morphological and dietary changes. A well-resolved chronology will allow these data on evolutionary changes in mammals and the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions to be linked to existing records of major paleo-environmental changes. This work will have broad implications for our understanding of extinctions, survival, environmental variables, and humans on mammalian ecology, which is directly relevant to modern conservation. The project also involves community outreach in the greater Los Angeles area through the La Brea Tar Pits Museum and will create educational content that will be available online for high school teachers across the country.

Becoming Los Angeles: Mesocarnivore Response to Late Pleistocene Disturbances

Dr. Mairin Balisi, Postdoctoral Fellow, La Brea Tar Pits Museum, Los Angeles, CA

Approximately 10,000 years ago, two disturbances irrevocably impacted global ecosystems: the end of the last Ice Age, and the extinction of very large mammals (megafauna). These two events gave rise to our anomalous present-day communities, in which the largest predators tend to be medium- to small-sized mesocarnivores like coyotes and bobcats. Today, in the face of continuing global change and extirpation of large carnivores like grey wolves, mesocarnivores before and after the dual disturbances present a natural laboratory for tracking how mammal communities respond to large-scale ecological and environmental perturbation.

To investigate mesocarnivore response to climatic change and megafaunal extinction, this project integrates radiocarbon dating, systematic taxonomy, geometric morphometrics, and stable isotope analysis of mesocarnivores and their prey from southern California ecosystems preserved over the past 50,000 years at La Brea Tar Pits. By synthesizing paleontology and community ecology, this research aims to obtain deep historical insight into modern ecosystem function. Furthermore, funded by the Broadening Participation track of the National Science Foundation’s Postdoctoral Research Fellowships in Biology, this project embodies a double meaning for “community paleoecology”: involving the diverse human communities of modern LA in studying the diverse carnivore communities of prehistoric LA.

Re-Living Paleontology: Studying How Augmented Reality Immersion and Interaction Impact Engagement and Communicating Science to the Public. 

Dr. Benjamin Nye, Director for Learning Science Research, Institute for Creative Technologies, University of Southern California
Dr. Emily Lindsey, Assistant Curator, La Brea Tar Pits Museum, CA
Dr. Gale Sinatra, Professor, Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California
Dr. William Swartout, CTO, Institute for Creative Technologies, University of Southern California

Re-Living Paleontology is an AISL Research in Service to Practice project to study how visual immersion and interactivity in augmented reality (AR) affects visitors' engagement and understanding of science. This project will communicate paleontology research from the La Brea Tar Pits to the general public (e.g., adults, families) through AR-enhanced exhibits in the Museum and Hancock Park. This project seeks to investigate when and how AR can be leveraged so that it promotes engagement, increases understanding of science, and reduces scientific misconceptions. This work is important because many U.S. citizens misunderstand and question claims that have wide support among scientists, have misconceptions about critical issues, and lack a basic appreciation of how scientists evaluate evidence. Public understanding of science affects critical individual decisions and public policy. Informal learning institutions offer powerful settings to make a lasting impact on building knowledge and increasing engagement with science: a single exhibit can reach hundreds of thousands of visitors. AR is positioned to play a key role in the future of such high-impact exhibits, since it supports immersive, personalized interactions with hidden structural and causal relationships in situ. This project will help achieve that promise by studying how AR design factors affect visitor outcomes.

research associates

Dr. Wendy Binder
Associate Professor, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA.

My first work with the Rancho La Brea collections was when I was a graduate student at UCLA. My research focuses mainly on carnivore functional morphology. Recent projects with my undergraduates Shea Franklin, J'aime Moehlman, Derek Hondo, Natalie Poulter and Jaime Bittner include dire wolf and sabertoothed cat post-cranial measurements.

Dr. Larisa R. G. DeSantis
Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN

Recent and current research is aimed at clarifying the dietary behavior of the carnivores from Rancho La Brea to evaluate potential extinction hypotheses.  To date we have focused on using 3D dental microwear to evaluate the degree of hard object feeding in cats and bears.

Dr. Benjamin T. Fuller
Department of Archaeology and Heritage Studies, Aarhus University, Denmark 

Our recent research is focused on the development of methods for asphalt removal from bone collagen for radiocarbon dating and stable isotope ratio analysis of Pleistocene fauna at Rancho La Brea. Directly linking radiocarbon ages with isotopic results permits the reconstruction of diet and ecology of the species and will help determine if they were influenced by changing climatic conditions over the past 50,000 years. New specimens from a single deposit from Project 23 are currently being examined.

Dr. Anna Holden
Formerly Richard Gilder Graduate School, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

We are updating the current status and distribution of the extensive insect collection at Rancho la Brea. Most of these insect species are still living today though not necessarily in southern California. They increase our understanding of the diversity of life in prehistoric Los Angeles and provide crucial information about the regional climate thousands of years ago. New findings from Project 23 continuously add to the species list and enhance our understanding of local paleoecology. Recent studies include insect trace fossils in bone and wood, exquisite preservation of leafcutter bee nests and pupae, identification of previously undescribed plant galls and new methods to extract asphalt from insects for radiocarbon dating.

Dr. Greg McDonald
Regional Paleontologist for the Bureau of Land Management, Utah State Office, Salt lake City, UT
My research focus at Rancho La Brea is on the giant ground sloths and trying to understand their paleoecology.  I am also interested in the taphonomy of asphalt deposits and how Rancho La Brea compares to other similar deposits which preserve Pleistocene faunas, especially those in South America that also include ground sloths.

Dr. Julie Meachen
Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Des Moines University, Des Moines, IA

My projects at Rancho La Brea include work on limb proportions, sexual dimorphism and functional morphology of the large carnivores, as well as nitrogen isotope sampling.

Eric Scott
Program Manager, Cogstone Resource Management, Inc. & adjunct lecturer at California State University, San Bernardino, CA

My main focus at Rancho La Brea is on the Equidae. I am currently working on resolving the taxonomic status of the large La Brea horse and its population structure. 

Christopher A. Shaw
Research Associate, La Brea Tar Pits & Museum

My current research includes, western North American vertebrate fossil faunas, saber-toothed cat phylogeny, natural history, and paleopathology. For more than 30 years I have conducted regular collecting expeditions to Sonora, Mexico, in conjunction with an international team of paleontologists from the United States and Mexico.

Dr. John R. Southon
Department of Earth System Science Keck-CCAMS Group, University of California, Irvine, CA 

Our recent research is focused on the development of methods for asphalt removal from bone collagen for radiocarbon dating and stable isotope ratio analysis of Pleistocene fauna at Rancho La Brea. Directly linking radiocarbon ages with isotopic results permits the reconstruction of diet and ecology of the species and will help determine if they were influenced by changing climatic conditions over the past 50,000 years. New specimens from a single deposit from Project 23 are currently being examined.

Dr. Sue Ware
Research Associate, Denver Museum of Nature and Science, CO

Most of my research revolves around paleo-pathologies in large carnivores

H. Todd Wheeler
Research Associate, La Brea Tar Pits & Museum

My primary research field is the machairodont killing bite.  With an academic and professional background in engineering, I focus on the experimental testing and development of hypotheses using a full scale mechanical fixture and suitable prey proxies.  Since there are no extant proxies for saber-toothed cats I also study Panthera atrox and the extant Felidae for perspective.

visiting researchers

Dr. William Anyonge
Associate Professor in the Department of Biology, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH
I am examining cranial indicators of jaw biomechanics and endocranial capacity  in Canis dirus and  Canis latrans found at Rancho La Brea I am also gathering data on cross-sectional geometric properties of limb bones of Panthera atrox and Smilodon for studies on locomotor behavior.

Dr. Jean-Paul Baquiran
Formerly Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA

My research has focused on the metagenomics for identification of novel petroleum hydrocarbon degrading enzymes in natural asphalt seeps from the Rancho La Brea.

Caitlin Brown
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Los Angeles, CA

I graduated from the University of Notre Dame and am currently a PhD candidate in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at UCLA. My thesis documents evidence of overpopulation preserved in modern herbivore skeletal elements- specifically features in the teeth and jaw caused by starvation. I hope to use the frequency of these features in extinct herbivores to derive relative population densities in the Pleistocene. In addition, Mairin Balisi and I are working with Chris Shaw at Rancho La Brea examining the Smilodon fatalis and Canis dirus pathology collection.

Tasha Cammidge
Formerly University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada

I recently finished my Master's degree at the University of Calgary looking at ice age mammoth and mastodon diet changes, in order to investigate the cause of their extinction. I am now interested in looking at the diet of the camels from Rancho La Brea by looking at dental calculus, also known as tartar.

Caitlin Colleary
Department of Geosciences, Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA

My PhD research focuses on the preservation and degradation of biomolecules. I am studying how original organic material is altered over time by chemically analyzing a variety of taxa from different depositional settings using mass spectroscopy. I will be incorporating mammoth material from Rancho La Brea into my dataset because it is a unique taphonomic setting, which will offer insights into the variety of ways biomelcules may preserve.

Alan Cooper & Kieren Mitchell
Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, University of Adelaide, South Australia 
A systematic search for aDNA across taxa and deposits at Rancho La Brea

Abigail Curtis
Formerly Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Los Angeles, CA

Cranio-dental shape evolution in Pleistocene canids from Rancho La Brea.

Dr. Lambert A. Doezema 
Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA
Research interests at the La Brea Tar Pits involve quantifying the amount of methane, ethane, propane, and other gases given off by the tar seeps.  The goal is to better understand the importance of geologic seepage in the global and local budgets of these hydrocarbon gases. 

Borja Figueirido
Associate Professor, Department of Ecology and Geology, University of Malaga, Spain

My research focus at Rancho La Brea is on the Carnivora. I am currently investigating the diet of the giant short-faced bear, Arctodus simus, the evolution of cranial shape and performance in the saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, and locomotory adaptations in the dire wolf, Canis dirus. I use 2D and 3D multidimensional shape data to characterize the osteological features of their skulls and skeletons that are validated with 3D computational modelling and biomechanics.

Jasmine Flake
University of California, Los Angeles, CA

My senior undergraduate research focuses on contrasting ecomorphology in small mammals of the Los Angeles area from the Pleistocene epoch to modern times. I plan to use fossils from the Hancock Collection at the La Brea Tar Pits to quantify body size distributions, locomotor modes, and dietary strategies in order to determine how the small-mammal guild - historically overlooked among the megafauna at La Brea - may have changed with environmental disturbance at the end of the last Ice Age. 

Nate Fox
Environmental Systems Graduate Group, School of Engineering, University of California, Merced, CA

My dissertation research at UC Merced focuses on small mammal fossils from Rancho La Brea such as rodents and lagomorphs. I am currently sorting microfossils from several “Project 23” deposits to determine how small mammal communities change through time at Rancho La Brea. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis will also be conducted to interpret dietary and environmental trends within these assemblages.

Dr. Blanca Garcia
Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
The principal aim of my research titled, “Influence of global climatic changes in the structure of predator-prey relationships in mammalian communities of the Iberian Neogene” is to determine how the environment affects the community structure of mammals on a global scale.

Jessie George
Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles, CA

I work with La Brea’s existing plant collection, identifying and radiocarbon dating botanical material, to assess the impact of climate change on community ecology, and extinction in Ice Age L.A over a span of about 40,000 years. With research on modern seep sites, their seasonal behavior, and modern plant entrapment we also hope to get a clearer idea of what the presence of a species within the seeps can actually tell us about plant life in the Los Angeles Basin during the Late Pleistocene.

Dr. Adam Hartstone-Rose
Associate Professor of Cell Biology & Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC

My current research investigates subtle variation in the carcass processing abilities of the Rancho La Brea carnivore guild to the variation seen in modern carnivorans and the fossil carnivorans of South Africa.  By measuring, photographing and taking molds of the teeth we will examine the two aspects of dietary dental adaptations - radius-of-curvature and intercuspid notches.

Kristiane Hill
Formerly University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
For my Master's thesis, I am developing a methodology for visualizing fossils, in situ, in their pre-excavation location within a single deposit at La Brea Tar Pits, utilizing Esri 3D GIS technology. The 3D visualizations resulting from this project will help inform research conducted by scientists at this site.

Dr. Chris Hubbard
Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, IL
Recently we have been doing shape analysis of the pelvic structures in extant felids and using these data to compare to extinct species. This involves both linear shape analysis as well as geometric shape analysis using Procrustes transformation.

Dr. Alex Hubbe
Formerly Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências -Universidade de São Paulo, BZ

Based on measurements of adult extinct and extant Xenarthran skulls and rooted in quantitative genetics, the objective of my PhD project was to better understand some processes that might be related to cranial morphological evolution within Xenarthra lineages. Now I teach at Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.

Lindsey Koper
Formerly Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, IL

My research has focused on the forelimb anatomy of Canis dirus

Meena Madan
Formerly School of Earth Sceinces, University of Bristol, England

My MSc. thesis project was on the "Evolutionary Anatomy and Function of Owls" where I compared the osteological features found in extinct owls from Rancho La Brea with those of extant species.

Dr. Joan Madurell-Malapeira
Postdoctoral researcher, Institut Català de Paleontologia M. Crusafont, Sabadell, Spain.
My current research investigates the anatomical differences between the Old and New World Pleistocene Felidae, especially focused on the American species Lynx rufus, Panthera augusta, Puma concolor and Panthera atrox as compared with their relatives/putative ancestors Lynx issiodorensis, Panthera gombaszoegensis, Puma pardoides and Panthera fossilis. 

Dr. Virginia Naples
Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, IL

My primary interests in Rancho La Brea are in the big cats and the sloths but have also used the collections to help build an image database for my students.

Kacey Johnson Pham
Formerly University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA

For my Master's thesis, I used GIS to digitize and georeference a paper survey map of Hancock Park. The map contains historical pit locations, creeks, ponds, and topography that have for the most part been lost due to the rapid development in the park and the surrounding area. I also extracted individual fossil data from the EMu database, transformed these data for use in GIS, and loaded them into a map which relates the individual records to their localites. Using these data, I was able to produce a proof of concept interactive web application. 

Samantha Presslee
University of York, BioArCh, York, England

In collaboration with the American Museum of Natural History and the University of Copenhagen, my PhD explores the relatively new field of palaeoproteomics. My main aim is to provide proof-of-concept data for the study of proteins in fossils, and La Brea represents a unique environment to explore both protein survival and the phylogenetic potential of palaeoproteomics in a wide range of taxa.

Dr. Marcela Randau
Formerly University College London, UK

For my PhD I worked on the macroevolutionary correlations between organismal shape and function.  My main work focuses on the modularity and biomechanics of the felid vertebral column. I am also interested in pinniped inner ear evolution. I was supervised by Dr Anjali Goswami (UCL) and co-supervised by Dr John Hutchinson (Royal Veterinary College, UK).

Ashley Reynolds
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, ON, Canada

My thesis work will examine the growth of Smilodon fatalis by looking at its bone histology, and will use comparisons with the growth of living cats to make inferences about the life history of Smilodon. To do this, I will be making thin sections from an ontogenetic series of femora and will be performing analyses based on aspects of these bones’ microstructure, such as growth marks and remodelling.  

Dr. Blaine Schubert
Department of Geosciences, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN.

My research interests at Rancho La Brea include microwear on carnivore teeth and Arctodus cranial morphology

Scott Sunell
Department of Anthropology, University of California Los Angeles, CA 

My research is focused on small-scale stone tool manufacture by the Chumash living on Santa Cruz Island here in California. One of the potential uses for these tools was boat manufacture, based on the presence of a marsh and appropriate toolstone near the sites I have excavated. Reed balsa boats, a foundational tool of Chumash subsistence, were produced by lashing together stalks of harvested tule reeds into bundles, combining three or more bundles into a canoe-like shape, and sealing the exterior of the balsa with asphaltum. In order to identify archaeological proxies for this activity, and to understand the process of making the boats, I built a six-foot scale model of a tule reed balsa using replicated stone tools and asphaltum provided by La Brea Tar Pits. My analysis of the results is ongoing, but the project itself produced significant insights into the nature of Chumash technology and subsistence practices.

Dr. Andrea K. Thomer
Formerly School of Information Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL

I am interested in museum informatics, biodiversity informatics, data curation, and information organization. In my PhD, I explored methods of curating and aggregating complex, heterogenous scientific datasets from scientifically significant sites such as the La Brea Tar Pits. There I worked with collections and excavation staff to review and possibly revise their excavation and data collection methods. This work will hopefully inform future excavation projects, and data collection and curation best practices at other scientifically significant sites.

Dr. Joy Ward
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KN.
My research interests focus on the evolutionary responses of plants to changing carbon dioxide over geologic time scales.

If you have visited the collections at Rancho La Brea in the past 5 years and would like to mention your research on this page, please email the Collections Manager

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